than to the commercial interests of the Phoenicians. Even today, historians and archaeologists can't quite agree on who was a part of this diverse group. The Hittite blockage had been removed. In Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, vol. at the hands of the Sea Peoples, of whom the best known are the Philistines. In his opening remarks he states, "On a collation of the Irish with the Celtic, Punic, and Phoenician languages, the strongest affinity, (nay a perfect Identity in very many Words) will appear; it may therefore be deemed a Punic-Celtic compound. In 603 B.C. and later hired out as mercenaries. And this was long before the coming of the Greeks. The Kaska lived to the north of the Hittites, between them and the Black Sea, and attacked at this time. As for those who had assembled before them on the sea, the full flame was in their front, before the harbor-mouths, and a wall of metal upon the shore surrounded them. The traditional major milestone events in the Sea Peoples invasion are:[ii]. The presence of Minoan and Mycenaean pottery suggests Aegean contacts with the city. |*|, “The Philistine pentapolis came under control of David and remained generally part of Judah or Israel for most of the 10th and probably part of the ninth century. According to the Guinness Book of Records, the earliest example of alphabetic writing was a clay tablet with 32 cuneiform letters found in Ugarit, Syria and dated to 1450 B.C. On the link between the Sea People and Phoenicians, Maria Eugenia Aubet, a leading Phoenician expert at Pempeu Fabra University in Barcelona, told National Geographic: “I think they became friends, Phoenician material culture shows so many elements from the Sea Peoples. Since little has survived of Phoenician records or literature, most of what is known about their origins and history comes from the accounts of other civilizations and inferences from their material culture excavated throughout the Mediterranean. 364-365. The desolate Valley of Hinom, just south of the Old City in Jerusalem, is where the ancient Canaanites reportedly conducted human sacrifices in which children were immolated in front of their parents. (These) lands were united, and they laid their hands upon the land as far as the Circle of the Earth. The Sea Peoples, like the Phoenicians, were excellent navigators---and how they knew the routes west to the rich sources of metals.”, DNA evidence seems to indicate the impact of the Sea People, if they existed, were a cultural and technological group, not a blood group. At a time of severe food shortages, when this need was about to erupt into a truly massive migration of people, the Phoenicians were the ones who could bring some quantity of food. The historical record on them between 1,000 and 600 B.C. and mixed with local Canaanites to create the Phoenicians. They were dragged, overturned, and laid low upon the beach; slain and made heaps from stern to bow of their galleys, while all their things were cast upon the water. Tyre was one of the leading Phoenician cities in 1200 BC, and we are fortunate to have an excellent archaeological study of this site which went all the way down to bedrock. The site’s excavation has been overseen by Harvard archaeologist Lawrence Stager since 1985. The Phoenicians were outstanding seafarers, successfully traveling the Mediterranean and Red Seas, as well as interior waterways and the mid-Atlantic coast. The chief cities of Phoenicia … I was the valiant Montu, stationed before them, that they might behold the hand-to-hand fighting of my arms. Send-to-Kindle or Email . [Source: Mark Millmore, discoveringegypt.com ^^^], Pierre Grandet wrote: “Athough the king prevented the invasion of Egypt by the Sea Peoples, their migration forever changed the geopolitical landscape of the ancient Near East and seems to have been a key factor in this mutation by gradually depriving Egypt of any control of its former Asiatic territories. As previously mentioned, some theories comment upon but do not look into the curious fact that Phoenician cities seem to have been unaffected by the destruction which went on around them at this time. In 1182 BC Ugarit fell and the flow of wheat from Egypt was cut off. The word Palestine was coined by the Romans and derived from Philistia, or "land of the Philistines." Sidon and Byblos were the other significant Phoenician cities at this time, but to date insufficient research has been conducted to support or deny the conclusion of no destruction at these sites. The Phoenicians were among the few civilizations unhindered by the Bronze Age Collapse and the attack of the “Sea Peoples.” In fact, this also marked the start of their golden age. It was fairly common in the ancient Mediterranean for the death of a powerful king to lead to attacks by neighboring states, each seeking to determine if the successor king was weak, and if prized lands might be wrested away. The Phoenicians At the western end of the Fertile Crescent, along the Mediterranean Sea, was a land known as Phoenicia. Some archeologist and historians believe a mysterious group known as the Sea People — perhaps ancestors of the Minoans — migrated to Lebanon around 1200 B.C. Although the Egyptians had a reputation as poor seamen they fought with the tenacity of those defending their homes. While the bulk of them proceeded by land, their advance was preceded by nautical raids against the coast and the islands of the Eastern Mediterranean. The starting point is the material culture of Dor, the SKL town according You can take a look inside the book on Amazon. Ramses had lined the shores with ranks of archers who kept up continuous volleys of arrows into the enemy ships when they attempted to land. [xxxii] Bryce, The Kingdom of the Hittites, p. 357. [i] Surprisingly for such a pivotal moment in world history, the origin and identity of the Sea Peoples are still widely debated. [Source: Pierre Grandet, 2014, UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, 2013 escholarship.org <>], The Sea Peoples annihilated the Hittite Empire and looked they might do the same to the Egyptians. Yet the actual Sea Peoples did all these things. In each case there is a cluster of dates within a narrow band for these events. They were repelled by Semitic tribes people who arrived as early as 3200 B.C. They were manned [completely] from bow to stern with valiant warriors bearing their arms, soldiers of all the choicest of Egypt, being like lions roaring upon the mountain-tops. Fisherman in Lebanon still chant "El...EEE...sa, El...EEE...sa," which is believed to have originally been and ode to Elisa, the Princess of Tyre (Virgils Dido), In May 2016, researchers announced that first DNA analysis of an ancient Phoenician — 2,500-year-old remains of a man from the Tunisian city of Carthage — showed that the man had European heritage. She sees the Phoenicians as a diverse group of people who may have had some common links, but who were never one country or one “collective”. [xvi] Wachsmann, “To the Sea of the Philistines”, pp. Also, the general region became known as the land of the Palestu (=Palestine), or Philistines. | Teacher: Mauricio TorresChapter 3, Section 1 (page 72 in your books) 2. The primary importance of Justin's state ment thus lies in the fact that for a number of schol ars it provided evidence of aggressive activity by "Sea People" along the Phoenician coast. Until Joseph excavates his proposed site or someone else can show this legendary place still existed—and then perished—at the same time as the Sea Peoples (sending them out to conquer other lands), this possibility is not adequately supported. depicts Canaanite dignitaries visiting the pharaoh. Sea traders from Phoenicia and Carthage (a Phoenician colony traditionally founded in 814 B.C.) Widely known as astute merchants,[xxx] the Phoenicians would naturally have included wheat shipments in their sea trade at this time. He admitted that the similarity between Mycenaean and Philistine pottery did not begin until a later date—the middle of the 12th century BC—and not at the beginning of that century when the Sea Peoples migration took place. This view was championed by R. D. Barnett[v] and by others such as Eberhard Zangger[vi]. Phoenicians 1. [viii] They not only showed there was no widespread destruction at that time, there was also great continuity from layer to layer, indicating that the local society continued to live in the same way throughout this period. Shelley Wachsmann[iv] added a significant point which was missing from the above explanation, and that was the participation of people from Central Europe and the Black Sea region. “Ugarit: A Second-Millennium Kingdom on the Mediterranean Coast” Civilizations of the Ancient Near East (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1995), p. 1265. How "People of the Sea" Came to Be The Egyptians originally coined the name "Peoples of the Sea" for the foreign contingents that the Libyans brought in to support their attack on Egypt in c. 1220 BC during the reign of Pharaoh Merneptah. Scholars have speculated that the Phoenicians referred to themselves as ‘Kena’ani’ (‘Kinahna’ in Akkadian, or ‘Canaanite’ in English). [v] Barnett, R. D. “The Sea Peoples” Cambridge Ancient History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975), Vol. Carthage was a prominent Phoenician port and trade center established by colonists from Lebanon. The Origin of the Sea Peoples is founded on my publication 'The Early Minoan Colonization of Spain'. [xxvii] Wood, Michael In Search of the Trojan War (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998), p. 219. With hindsight we can now see what attraction this course of action would have held for the Sea Peoples. At the heart of it all were a mysterious people: the Phoenicians. [xxiii] Bryce, The Kingdom of the Hittites, p. 306. And since the Sea Peoples were Phoenicians, that must mean the Lydianswere these Phoenicians. 2, edited by Jack M. Sasson, pp. Phoenicians 1. [xxxi] Bryce, The Kingdom of the Hittites, p. 356. They flourished from c1500 to c300 BC and were famed traders. Some of the them, including the biblical Philistines and the Phoenicians — both of whom are regarded as descendants of the Sea Peoples — settled in Palestine and The Levant respectively. Among the interesting things that archaeologists have dug up in Ashkelon from the Philistine period are a large winery with a storehouse and a burial ground for dogs. Using any of the other dates within these bands does not change the outcome. Ugarit texts refer to deities such as El, Asherah, Baak and Dagan, previously known only from the Bible and a handful of other texts. At Ashkelon (see Below) Canaanite families placed corpses in burial chambers and kept them there until the flesh rotted off, a process that took several months, then they would bury the bones in recesses and corners of the chambers. ", “The discovery sheds some new light on the history of the Phoenicians, who are thought to have originated in Lebanon and spread across the Mediterranean. Though the Hittites themselves had no excess food to offer, they stood between the Sea Peoples and an achievable goal: the land of Canaan surrounding the Phoenicians, which was second only to Egypt as a source of wheat. The advance of the Sea Peoples was finally stopped in the Nile delta and their power was broken. When captured, they were often included in the Egyptian elite troops, as the Shardana of Ramesses II’s guard at the battle of Qadesh— a position that they still retained under Ramesses III.” <>, “Around 1200 BCE, these peoples began a large and destructive migration to the south and east of the Aegean. Paradoxically, they were also primary beneficiaries of the technological innovations introduced into the Levant by the immigrants from the Aegean. Experts differ over exactly how many battles were fought between Ramses and the Sea Peoples, as well as where they were fought. 367-368. I guess that only adds to their mystery.”, Phoenicians inhabited the coastal cities, Tyre, Sidon, Byblos and Arwad, in what is now Lebanon and southern Syria. Phoenicians were one of the great early civilizations of the Middle East Take a look inside this book on Amazon. Maria Eugenia Aubet, a leading Phoenician expert at Pempeu Fabra University in Barcelona, told National Geographic: “I think they became friends, Phoenician material culture shows so many elements from the Sea Peoples. The Phoenicians learned from them how to build harbors, moorings, docks, and piers. |*|, “The coastal region north of Carmel had been known since the time of Thothmosis IV as the land of the Fenkeu, or Phoenicians. 24-25. What services could the Sea Peoples possibly have received from these maritime traders? Sea Peoples destroyed Hattusa, Lydia arose in its place. The issue of Phoenician descendant became so divisive that the word Phoenician became taboo and was even absent from Phoenician displays in museums. Also, Plato identified Atlantis as having perished long before the Sea Peoples. This attack by the Sea Peoples on Egypt, the breadbasket which had been supplying the Hittites with wheat via Ugarit,[xxix] was consistent with the argument that these people were driven by food shortages in their lands. However the Hittites were preoccupied by problems at home and put off action in this direction. No one knows who the Sea Peoples were. Also, as noted earlier, refugees from the shattered Mycenaean world would eventually come to live among the Sea Peoples, though they did not begin to arrive in Cyprus and Palestine until the latter part of the 12th century BC.[xliii]. They were called Sidonians in the Bible. Based on the paper presented by Sanford Holst at Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane, Morocco on June 28, 2005. Please login to your account first; Need help? [Sources: John R. Abercrombie, University of Pennsylvania, James B. Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts (ANET), Princeton, Boston University, bu.edu/anep/MB.html |*|], Be aware that a few scholars do not link all coffin burials with the Philistines, but with other groups including Canaanites and Egyptians. Perhaps the best and most unambiguous way to answer this question is to separate the winners from the losers in this epic series of battles. So while their contemporaries were destroyed, the ancient Phoenicians minted new currency, prepared their fleets, and began growing the greatest trade network the Mediterranean had ever seen. All of this was offered to support a position that the Mycenaeans might have been the Sea Peoples. The towered wall on top of it may have risen to a height of 35 meters. The quick-strike raids in the Aegean and across the southern coast of Anatolia seem particularly of this nature, given that delivering settlers into those areas does not seem to have been the prime motivation. This approach may allow greater conformance with the array of facts discovered about the Sea Peoples and the events of this time. [Source: Pierre Grandet, 2014, UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, 2013 escholarship.org <>]. Since Hattusa was defeated by the Sea Peoples, the Sea Peoples must have taken the place over. 37-39. [xliv] Others sailed west and settled upon islands which were likewise given the name of the tribe which settled there: the Shekelesh who settled on Sicily,[xlv] the Sherden who settled on Sardinia,[xlvi] and several settlements in other lands. CLOUD: Sea Peoples origin and identity, Phoenicians, Mycenaeans, Egyptians, Hittites. The price of grain had already become a hardship—and then it had tripled in cost. Of course, this culture is greatly influenced by the Aegean world and continues to reflect that eclectic world we characterize as Canaanite in the Bronze Age.” |*|. With the exception of the defense against the attack from the Libyans, the rest of Ramses III’s long reign was peaceful. In fact the greatest campaigns the Sea Peoples would mount were by land. An important element mentioned by many sources, and yet given consideration by virtually none, is the simple fact that—in the midst of a cataclysm which destroyed almost every city in the eastern Mediterranean area—the Phoenician cities remained untouched. ", John R. Abercrombie of the University of Pennsylvania wrote: “Although the earliest depictions of Sea People occur in the reign of Seti I, the major incursion of these Aegean people happened about a century later during the reign of Ramesis III of the Twentieth Dynasty. During the second millennium B.C.E., the Canaanites controlled Palestine, Transjordan and Syria—from Ugarit down to the Egyptian border—and they developed a rich culture. Believed to have used to teach scribes languages, the tablet appears to have contained other columns with other languages, perhaps the Semitic cuneiform language of Akkadian and another unrelated tongue, possibly Hurrian or Hittite. C ilicia, Cyprus, Ugarit, and even the Hatti fell to their attacks, which reached inland as far as Karkemish on the Euphrates. I, king Ramses III, was made a far-striding hero, conscious of his might, valiant to lead his army in the day of battle. According to the Bible, the ancient Canaanites, were idol worshipers who practiced human sacrifice and engaged in deviant sexual activity. Although the vast majority of them descended from Arabs, they prefer to refer themselves as Phoenicians as opposed too Muslims, Christians, Arabs or even Lebanese. 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