white sea canal

The White Sea is an important route connecting the economically active portions of northwestern Russia with Russia’s Far Eastern ports and with foreign countries. Сталинские стройки ГУЛАГа.1930–53», Москва, 2005. [24], Until 1936, all financial transactions of the Combine were exempt from taxes and duties.[24]. That meant that all available resources should be invested to ensure the project was completed on time whatever the cost. The Panama Canal, which is 80 kilometers long, was built in 28 years, while the 160-kilometers-long Suez Canal was built in ten years. Senkevich (Э. И. Сенкевич), chief of WSBC, November 16, 1931 – January 16, 1932, also assistant chief of the BBK Construction Directorate. The opposing armies held these positions until June 1944. The White Sea–Baltic Canal is 141 miles (227 km) long, 23 miles (37 km) of which is manmade. According to the Soviet account, in 1932 when Anastas Mikoyan visited the Belomorstroy construction site, Lazar Kogan asked, "Comrade Mikoyan, what shall we call them? After Povenets there are seven locks close together, forming the "Stairs of Povenets". The canal project also gave the Russian language the slang word "zeka", "zek, z/k" for "inmate". 0 Reviews. White Sea–Baltic Canal, Russian Belomorsko-baltiysky Kanal, system of rivers, lakes, and canals in northwestern Russia that connects the White Sea to Lake Onega, where it joins the Volga-Baltic Waterway (q.v.). After the canal had been completed and opened for navigation, the Belbaltlag (White Sea-Baltic Camp) was reorganized into the White Sea-Baltic Combine (Baltiysko-Belomorsky Kombinat [BBK]), still within the NKVD system, by an order of the Council of People's Commissars of August 17, 1933. It connects the White Sea, in the Arctic Ocean, with Lake Onega, which is further connected to the Baltic Sea. (in Russian). One of the most important construction projects of the first five-year plan (1929–32). On August 28, the fifth and final bombing raid of the 1941 navigation season took place against Lock No. After many years of interruption, Volgotanker resumed the canal route in 2003. In particular, he emphasizes that politics and public relations ruined the usefulness of the canal: Stalin seems to have been so intent on creating a highly visible symbol of development that he pushed and squeezed the project in ways that only retarded the reality of development. Built between 1931 and 1933, the White Sea-Baltic Sea Canal was the first massive construction project of the Gulag. Construction of the White Sea-Baltic Canal (Belomorkanal). Stalin White Sea – Baltic Sea Canal, Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, Unified Deep Water System of European Russia, https://www.britannica.com/topic/White-Sea-Baltic-Canal, http://image.slidesharecdn.com/catalog-fenderbollard-130224235209-phpapp01/95/catalog-fenderbollard-47-638.jpg?cb=1361750574, "Chapter 8: TPC and Displacement Curves - Engineering360", "Gulag, The Storm projects - The White Sea Canal", "Система исправительно-трудовых лагерей в СССР", Karhumäki — Poventsa offensive operation, December 1941. Its economic advantages are limited by its minimal depth of 3.5 m (11.5 ft),[citation needed] inadequate for most sea-going vessels. [32] The White Sea Canal was also constructed with this military use in mind,[33] It connects the White Sea, in the Arctic Ocean, with Lake Onega, which is further connected to the Baltic Sea. Paul R. Gregory, Valery Lazarev and V. V. Lazarev, This page was last edited on 1 January 2021, at 10:21. The workforce was organized into brigades of 25–30, which made up phalanges of 250–300. Korablev, V.G.Makurov, Yu.A.Savvateev, M.I.Shumilov; Petrozavodsk, Periodika Publishers, 2001. Lake Onega unites the canal with the Volga-Baltic Waterway, through which ships can reach the Baltic Sea and the Volga River itself. Canal capacity and the annual volume of freight traffic increased several-fold. The canal was constructed between 1931 and 1933 by forced labor of Gulag inmates. Being an account of the construction of the new canal between the White Sea and the Baltic Sea. the White Sea–Baltic Canal in the history of the Gulag. The Combine was charged with operating the canal and managing the economic development of the adjacent areas, including 2.8 million hectares of forest lands and the industrial facilities that had been constructed along the route. Finally, six months before the end of the canal’s … The total length of the waterway is 227 km (141 mi), of which 48 km (30 mi) are man-made. The White Sea–Baltic Canal (Russian: Беломо́рско-Балти́йский кана́л, Byelomorsko-Baltiyskiy kanal, BBK), often abbreviated to White Sea Canal (Belomorkanal) is a ship canal in Russia opened on Wednesday 2 August 1933. Speed is limited to 8 km/h (4.3 kn; 5.0 mph) in all artificial portions. These locks are the southern slope of the canal. It is likely that at least some of the visiting writers were aware of the brutality of camp life. On the same day, Soviet troops started demolishing canal structures. Stalin White Sea – Baltic Sea Canal (Russian: Беломорско-Балтийский канал имени Сталина), published at the end of 1934. Updates? The canal served as a testing ground for the use of forced labor in a massive infrastructure project. ред. It was built between 1931 and 1933 in a record time, opening on August 2, 1933. Gorky, who had previously visited the Solovetski Islands labor camp in 1929 and written about it in the Soviet journal Our Accomplishments,[23] organized the White Sea trip, but did not himself join it. The White Sea–Baltic Canal links it through Lake Onega to the Baltic Sea and the major city and port of Saint Petersburg. [19] The mortality rate was about 8.7%,[20] with many more sick and disabled. Maksim Gorky, Leopolʹd Averbakh, Semen Georgievich Firin, Amabel Williams-Ellis. Transfer operations began 24 June 2003, but on 1 September a low-speed collision between Volgotanker's Nefterudovoz-57M and the Latvian Zoja-I during a transfer caused a crack in the Nefterudovoz's hull, with a subsequent oil spillage estimated at 45 t (44 long tons; 50 short tons), of which only 9 t (8.9 long tons; 9.9 short tons) were recovered. At the same time, heavy fighting took place near the Povenets Lock Ladder (Locks No. One of the ideas is to travel from St Petersburg to… The White Sea-Baltic Canal was finished in the early 1930's, and it connects the White Sea with the Baltic Sea. why they would do that? Originally the abbreviation stood for zaklyuchyonny kanaloarmeyets (Russian: заключённый каналоармеец), literally "incarcerated canal-army-man". View Homework Help - 1.1 White Sea Canal Exercise 052012 from PROJECT MA 6K285 at University of Iowa. [7][8][9] The canal was originally proposed to be 5.4 m (17.7 ft) deep; however, the cost and time constraints of Stalin's first five-year plan forced the much shallower draught.[10]. By the morning of December 8, Locks No 1 to 6, and dams No. and what this canal allowed? So the Canal is being invested in. Another upgrade took place in the 1970s. The Finns crossed the canal and captured Gabselga village to the east, but after a few days of fighting they were pushed back to the canal's western side. [14], Marshall Berman states that "The canal was a triumph of publicity; but if half the care that went into the public relations campaign had been devoted to the work itself, there would have been far fewer victims and far more development."[15]. Once the canal was open, ships got the opportunity to sail from the White Sea to the Baltic Sea without having to go round the Scandinavian Peninsula. The first massive construction project was the White Sea-Baltic Sea Canal. Source for information on White Sea Canal: Encyclopedia of Russian History dictionary. The volume was edited and compiled by Maxim Gorky and contributed to by various other Soviet writers. Media in category "White Sea-Baltic Canal" The following 107 files are in this category, out of 107 total. Minimum lock dimensions are 14.3 m (47 ft) wide by 135 m (443 ft) long. BACKGROUND The notion of a canal that would connect the Baltic and White Seas Two major seas … The canal begins near Povenets settlement in Povenets bay of Lake Onega. The canal’s speedy completion provided an impetusforothersimilarprojects,suchasDalstroiandtheMoskva-Volga Canal. [40], The canal system includes five hydroelectric power plants with total production capacity of 240 MW.[28]. After the successful construction, 12,484 prisoners were freed as reward, and for 59,516 prison terms were shortened. [21] There were norms for labor, for example 2.5 m3 (3.3 cu yd) of hand-dug stone per day per brigade. From the very first days of its opening the canal has been used mainly by cargo ships. The canal summit pond at 103 m elevation is 22 km (14 mi) long between locks 7 & 8. On top of that, for the project’s “ideological support,” the OGPU needed "engineers of the human soul"—artists, photographers, writers, and poets. 1 to 7). The commandos were Finnish volunteers recruited by the German Major Schaller, and were equipped with German uniforms and weapons, as the Finnish General Staff wanted no responsibility for the operation. With Germany's full-scale invasion of the USSR in 1941, supported by Finland in the Continuation War, the canal route became the front line. In addition to convicts and "special settlers", the Combine employed about 4500 free employees and a paramilitary security force. The commandos were to blow up the canal locks, but they failed due to heightened security.[26]. [31], Russian (and later Soviet) naval strategists long believed that a well-designed canal system could help establish contact among the separate fleets based on Russia's Black Sea, Baltic, Arctic, Pacific, and Caspian coasts. The canal was constructed by forced labor of gulag inmates. [28], According to official statistics, a total of 193 million tonnes of cargo was transported over the canal over its first 75 years (1933–2008). It was constructed between 1 It is also linked to the water transportation system of European Russia by the White Sea–Baltic Canal, which empties into Lake Onega. White Sea - Wikipedia However, in the 1930s the White Sea – Baltic Canal was built, and the Northern Dvina Canal lost its significance. Lock No. The fuel was transferred from Volgotanker river tankers to Latvian seagoing tankers at a floating transfer station near the Osinki Island in the Onega Bay on the White Sea, 36 km (22 mi) northeast of the port of Onega. Supposedly "reforging class enemies" (political prisoners) through "corrective labor", the working conditions at the BBK Camp were brutal, with the prisoners given only primitive hand tools to carry out the massive construction project. "History of Karelia from antiquity to our time", editors: N.A. [30], In Soviet times, the canal was used for shipping oil products from refineries on the Volga River to consumers in the Murmansk Oblast and overseas. Stalin White Sea – Baltic Sea Canal is a 1934 Soviet historical volume detailing the construction of the White Sea-Baltic Sea Canal and the labor used to construct it. Gorky, Maxim, Leopold Auerbach und Semjon Grigorjewitsch Firin: The company had plans to carry 800,000 tonnes of fuel oil over the canal during 2003, and to increase the volume to 1,500,000 t (1,476,000 long tons; 1,653,000 short tons) in 2004. WHITE SEA CANAL The White Sea (Belomor) Canal in Karelia rises from Lake Onega in the south to a maximum of 108 meters (118.1 feet) at Lake Vyg and then descends to the White Sea in the north. The white sea canal opened on Wednesday 2 August 1933, (until 1961, it was known as the “Stalin White Sea-Baltic Canal”). Volgotanker's alleged failure to contain the spill resulted in the Arkhangelsk Oblast authorities shutting down the oil transfer operation with only 220,000 tonnes exported. The settlements of Povenets, Segezha, Nadvoitsy, Sosnovets, and Belomorsk are located along the canal. The White Sea is an important traffic centre of northwestern Russia, interconnecting various economic regions and providing an outlet to the foreign routes. [41], Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}62°48′N 34°48′E / 62.800°N 34.800°E / 62.800; 34.800, Profile of the canal showing the locks and elevation, Беломорско-Балтийский канал имени Сталина, Сроки работы шлюзов (Lock operation periods), from the site of the Russian Shipping Companies' Association. According to official records and accounts in the works of Aleksandr... Get premium, high resolution news photos at Getty Images By the time construction began, the Soviet Union had already begun to execute several similarly grand, … The White Sea–Baltic Canal (Russian: Беломо́рско-Балти́йский кана́л, Byelomorsko-Baltiyskiy kanal, BBK), often abbreviated to White Sea Canal (Belomorkanal) is a ship canal in Russia opened on Wednesday 2 August 1933. This canal connects the White Sea with Lake Onega, and having access to the Baltic Sea and the Volga-Baltic Waterway. The company was fined and future operations were refused. [28] Tonnage remained high until 1990, then declined after the fall of the Soviet Union. The importance of BBK for the national economy greatly increased after the commissioning of the modern Volga-Baltic Waterway in 1964. The White Sea–Baltic Canal is 141 miles (227 km) long, 23 miles (37 km) of which is manmade. The BBK led to the development of Belomorsk as a major industrial city. From 1932 to 1933, a 227 km-long canal was dug to the north of St Petersburg. Russia's Volgotanker Company, with a fleet of suitably sized petroleum tankers and ore-bulk-oil carriers, pioneered this route starting August 1970, when Nefterudovoz-3 delivered a cargo of fuel oil to the White Sea port of Kandalaksha.[31]. The latter two are large Russian water bodies. In all, the Combine's employees accounted for about 25% of the population of the Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. Transportation of oil from the Russian part of the Barents Sea region, as of January 2005, Photos and some info from Open Society Archives, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=White_Sea–Baltic_Canal&oldid=997603356, Buildings and structures built in the Soviet Union, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles with Russian-language sources (ru), Articles with unsourced statements from December 2008, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, P. F. Aleksandrov (П. Ф. Александров), acting chief of WSBC, January 16, 1932, full chief from March 28, 1932, to at least January 15, 1933, E.I. The northern slope has twelve locks numbered 8–19. The same can be said of the Magnitogorsk foundries and other…, …turn, is joined to the White Sea (via Lake Onega) by the. On December 5, Finnish troops entered Medvezhyegorsk. In November, a caravan of passenger vessels evacuating families of Povenets canal workers and residents, along with equipment, froze into the ice of Lake Vygozero. By Mia Bennett 09-10-2015 10:10:12 In summer above the Arctic Circle, the sun does not set. Baltic-White Sea Canal a canal that connects the White Sea with Lake Onega. The History of the Construction" (, Беломорско-Балтийский канал имени Сталина. The White Sea–Baltic Canal connects the White Sea with the Baltic Sea. The White Sea-Baltic Sea Canal project took the lives of 12,000 of its construction labor workforce, which was made up entirely of inmates. This depth typically corresponds to river craft with deadweight cargo up to 600 tonnes, while useful sea going vessels of 2,000–3,000 dwt typically have drafts of 4.5–6 m (15–20 ft). In the context of its time, the White Sea Canal—Belomorkanal, in Russian, or Belomor, for short—was not unique. Still there isn’t a lot of traffic. The White Sea Canal: A Hymn of Praise for Forced Labour. Cargo tonnage peaked in 1985, with 7.3 million tonnes transported. In Russian, "inmate", "incarcerated" is заключённый (zakliuchyonnyi), usually abbreviated to "з/к" in paperwork, and pronounced as "зэка" (IPA: [zɨˈka], "zeh-KA"), which gradually transformed into "зэк" and "зек", zek (both pronounced as IPA: [ˈzɛk]). 944 pages. Once the locks of the Povenets Ladder had been destroyed, water from the watershed lakes poured freely into Lake Onega through Povenets village, which was nearly completely destroyed by the flood. There was no action near the White Sea–Baltic Canal during the Winter War of 1939-1940, when the USSR invaded Finland. During the 2007 season, the canal carried 0.4 million tonnes of cargo along with 2,500 passengers. For the navigation seasons of 2008 to 2010, the canal locks were scheduled to operate from 20 May to 15–30 October, giving 148–163 navigation days per year.[11]. (Беломорско-Онежское государственное бассейновое управление водных путей и судоходства), which is also responsible for shipping on Lake Onega and in the Belomorsk harbor area (but not in the open waters of the White Sea). On June 23, 1941, the day after the German invasion, 16 Finnish commandos were ferried to the canal by two German Heinkel He 115 seaplanes from Oulujärvi. In addition, the Combine included 21 "special settlements" (spetsposyolok) with some 30 thousand residents, mostly dispossessed farm families transported to Karelia from the USSR's warmer regions. Construction of the White Sea-Baltic Canal . According to official records and accounts in the works of Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, between 12,000 and 240,000 laborers died during the construction of the canal… The canal was constructed between 1931 and 1933 by forced labor of Gulag inmates. The current flows north from Lake Onega to the White Sea, and all navigation marks are set according to it. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. On December 6 in a -37 °C frost, Finnish troops captured Povenets, the southern entrance to the BBK. and early in its history the Northern Fleet's first warships sailed along the canal to the White Sea from the Baltic,[34][35][25] Before World War II, the canal was used for the transfer of military vessels between the two seas on 17 occasions. The I.V. The word is still in colloquial use. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. At the White Sea Canal, a special “cultural-educational” department emerged, which comprised a theatre made up of a number of prisoners, and which issued a camp newspaper called Reforging. 19 in Belomorsk, with only 80 left at their stations. From inside the book . Povenets, which had been demoted from a town to a village in the 1920s, now became a town again, and a large port. More than 100,000 prisoners dug a 141-mile canal with few tools other than shovels, wheelbarrows, and pickaxes GULAG is an acronym for the Chief Administration of Corrective Labor Camps and Colonies of the Soviet Secret Police. This would significantly reduce the travel time and the cost of transporting goods, since it would not be necessary to bypass Scandinavia through the Barentsevo, Norwegian, Northern and Baltic Seas. The system, which can take ships of seagoing size, has both strategic and commercial significance, for it shortens the sea passage from St. Petersburg to Arkhangelsk by 2,500 miles (4,000 km). On June 28, the canal was bombed for the first time by the Finnish Air Force, targeting Locks No. Until 1961, its original name was the Stalin White Sea–Baltic Canal (Belomorsko-Baltiyskiy Kanal imeni Stalina). Deaths on the White Sea Canal, 1931-1933 According to official figures, during the construction of Belomor, the White Sea Canal, 2.24% of the prisoners in the BelBaltlag camp complex died in 1931 (1,438 persons), 2.03% died in 1932 (2,010 persons) and in 1933, due to famine in the USSR and the rapidly approaching deadline to finish the project, 10.56% of the prison workforce died (8,870 persons). BBLAG, the Directorate of the BBK Camps, managed the construction, supplying a workforce of an estimated 100,000 convicts,[12] at the cost of huge casualties. The entire canal was constructed in twenty months, between 1931 and 1933, almost entirely by manual labor. As is discussed further below, during the 1930s a number of smaller naval vessels were transferred from the Baltic to the White Sea to provide warships for the Soviet Northern Naval Flotilla, which became the Northern Fleet in 1937.[25]. Thus the workers and engineers were never allowed the time, money or equipment necessary to build a canal that would be deep enough and safe enough to carry twentieth-century cargoes; consequently, the canal has never played any significant role in Soviet commerce or industry.[15]. The White Sea – Baltic Sea Canal (Russian: Беломо́рско–Балти́йский кана́л, Belomorsko–Baltiyskiy Kanal, BBK), often abbreviated to White Sea Canal (Belomorkanal) is a ship canal in Russia opened on 2 August 1933. (История Карелии с древнейших времён до наших дней / Науч. On the night of November 12/13, another boat caravan froze in Zaonezhsky Bay near Megostrov Island, and was later captured by Finnish troops. The Canal should have been connected Onega Lake and the White Sea, and 37 km were dug through the ground and cliffs for this purpose. Similarly, Aleksandr Avdeenko's account of Belomor includes conversations between OGPU chief Semyon Firin and Prince Mirsky that reveal at least some of the writers were aware of its true nature. The White Sea-Baltic Canal connects Lake Onega with the White Sea. The following illustration depicts the profile of the White Sea–Baltic Canal. The Soviet Union presented the canal as an example of the success of the first five-year plan. Buildings are newly renovated and painted as well. Usage rose gradually in the 21st century, but remained well below the Soviet-era peak, with just 0.3 million tonnes in 2002. The White Sea Canal was the regime's first “storm project” complete with an agenda for a project of national significance. Over 100,000 prisoners dug a 141-mile canal with few tools other than simple pickaxes, shovels, and makeshift wheelbarrows in just 20 months. From Povenets, at the northern end of Lake Onega, the canal runs northward to Lake Vygozero (using seven locks), from which the canalized Vyg River (with 12 additional locks) leads to the White Sea. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The White Sea - Baltic Canal For a long time, people thought about constructing a waterway between the White Sea and Lake Onega. The canal gave its name to the Belomorkanal Soviet cigarette brand. 4 and 20 had all been demolished. Its construction was completed four months ahead of schedule, though it was entirely too shallow for the planned use. John Lane, 1935 - Convict labor - 356 pages. There was no lack of possibilities, but one in particular appealed to Stalin: the construction of a vast canal, from the White Sea to the Baltic Sea, across a landscape largely composed of sheer granite. 7, but it did no damage. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. Mikoyan approved. Н. А. Кораблёв, В. Г. Макуров, Ю. А. Савватеев, "White Sea Baltic Canal named after Stalin.

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