Many species of mushrooms and lichens are also found in the state. "Montana: Land of the Big Sky, the Unabomer, and Very Little Else". This act brought mostly cattle and sheep ranchers into Montana, many of whom grazed their herds on the Montana prairie for three years, did little to irrigate the land and then abandoned it without paying the final fees. Higher education is overseen by a governor-appointed Board of Regents, which in turn appoints a commissioner of higher education. Ecotaxes on resource extraction are numerous. Montana and South Dakota are the only states to share a land border which is not traversed by a paved road. When so authorized by the legislature, actions of executive branch agencies may be appealed directly to a District Court. This Montana state slogan is from 1985. This nickname speaks for itself. Extreme hot weather is less common above 4,000 feet or 1,200 meters. The transcontinental NPR was completed on September 8, 1883, at Gold Creek. Between many mountain ranges are rich river valleys. It borders North Dakota and South Dakota to the east. The Yellowstone River rises on the Continental Divide near Younts Peak in Wyoming's Teton Wilderness. Many Native Americans were among those who served, including soldiers from the Crow Nation who became Code Talkers. Supposedly, Native American tribes were to also have referred to the mountains as "shining" because of the shiny reflections made by the glittery snow of mountain peaks. Massive debt was one. From 1889 to 1909, elections for judicial office in Montana were partisan. These lands are managed by the state for the benefit of public schools and institutions in the state.  One is a member of the Great Northwest Athletic Conference. Three issues which the constitutional convention were unable to resolve were submitted to voters simultaneously with the proposed constitution. where two continental divides intersect). , Areas managed by the National Park Service include:, Montana is a large state with considerable variation in geography, topography and altitude, and the climate is, therefore, equally varied. The students were Indian children and the children of Fort Owen employees. However, property taxes are assessed on livestock, farm machinery, heavy equipment, automobiles, trucks, and business equipment. Until 1959, the company owned five of the state's six largest newspapers.  The underlying surface consists of sandstone and shale. State flower, bitterroot. The clerk of the Supreme Court is also an elected position, and serves a six-year term. The motto of Montana is as follows: Oro y plata. Among Montana's most historically prominent senators are Thomas J. Walsh (serving from 1913 to 1933), who was President-elect Franklin D. Roosevelt's choice for attorney general when he died; Burton K. Wheeler (serving from 1923 to 1947), an oft-mentioned presidential candidate and strong supporter of isolationism; Mike Mansfield, the longest-serving Senate majority leader in U.S. history; Max Baucus (served 1978 to 2014), longest-serving U.S. senator in Montana history, and the senator who shepherded the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act through the Senate in 2010; and Lee Metcalf (served 1961 to 1978), a pioneer of the environmental movement.  An area southwest of Belfry averaged only 6.59 inches (167 mm) over a 16-year period. In 1985, the Montana Legislature passed a law allowing towns with fewer than 5,500 residents and unincorporated communities with fewer than 2,500 to levy a resort tax if more than half the community's income came from tourism.  The largest European ancestry groups in Montana as of 2010 are: German (27.0%), Irish (14.8%), English (12.6%), Norwegian (10.9%), French (4.7%), and Italian (3.4%). Montana, constituent state of the U.S. Molly Todd has won the Betty Coffey Award Explore In honor of Martin Luther King Jr. Day, MSU presents "A Celebration of Blackness" virtual event, Jan. 15, 11:30 a.m. to 4 p.m.  Until the Oregon Treaty (1846), land west of the continental divide was disputed between the British and U.S. and was known as the Oregon Country. Motto Language Translation; Appalachian State University: Esse Quam Videri: Latin: To be, rather than to seem: ... English: Illinois State University: Gladly we Learn and Teach: English: Indiana University: Lux et Veritas: ... Montana State University - Billings: Access and Excellence: English: Montclair State University: Pioneering feminist author, film-maker, and media personality Mary MacLane attained international fame in 1902 with her memoir of three months in her life in Butte, The Story of Mary MacLane. It has a single judge, appointed by the governor. The U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management controls 8,100,000 acres (33,000 km2) of federal land.  The suppression of civil liberties that occurred led some historians to dub this period "Montana's Agony". The property's value is multiplied by a tax rate, set by the Montana Legislature, to determine its taxable value. Apparently the nickname "Land of Shining Mountains" originated with two French Canadian fur traders who, when taking in the spectacular view of the mountains, referred to them as the "Shining Mountains". There is a Youth Court in every judicial district, and decisions of the Youth Court are appealable directly to the Montana Supreme Court. , The first U.S. Army post established in Montana was Camp Cooke in 1866, on the Missouri River, to protect steamboat traffic going to Fort Benton. There are no intermediate appellate courts. Toole. In December 1959, Malmstrom AFB was selected as the home of the new Minuteman I intercontinental ballistic missile. The constitution was narrowly approved, 116,415 to 113,883, and declared ratified on June 20, 1972.  In 1917–18, due to a miscalculation of Montana's population, about 40,000 Montanans, 10% of the state's population, volunteered or were drafted into the armed forces. Montana State Motto “Oro y Plata” (Gold and Silver) Montana State Nicknames Big Sky Country The Mountain State The Bonanza State The Headwaters State The …  In 1902, the Reclamation Act was passed, allowing irrigation projects to be built in Montana's eastern river valleys. With an area of 147,040 square miles (380,800 km2), Montana is slightly larger than Japan. State Names, Flags, Seals, Songs, Birds, Flowers, and Other Symbols, by George Earlie Shankle. Baseball is the minor-league sport with the longest heritage in the state, and Montana is home to three Minor League Baseball teams, all members of the Pioneer League: the Billings Mustangs, Great Falls Voyagers, and Missoula Osprey. If the state motto is not in English, the English translation is shown in parentheses. To Hon.  While the treaty established what later became the Flathead Indian Reservation, trouble with interpreters and confusion over the terms of the treaty led Whites to believe the Bitterroot Valley was opened to settlement, but the tribal nations disputed those provisions. Many well-known artists, photographers and authors have documented the land, culture and people of Montana in the last 130 years.  Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus announced on September 3, 2015, that Virginia Class attack submarine SSN-794 will become the second commissioned warship to bear the name. , The 1972 constitution requires that voters determine every 20 years whether to hold a new constitutional convention. , The Chinese in Montana, while a low percentage today, have been an important presence. The Montana state motto is a Spanish motto and in English it means "Gold and Montana", University of Montana, Bureau of Business and Economic Research 2011, "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States", "Population of Montana: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts", Census Bureau-Annual Estimates of Race 2012, Montana Office of Public Instruction 2009, https://www.census.gov/library/visualizations/2015/comm/percent-veterans.html, "The Association of Religion Data Archives—Maps & Reports", "Montana Constitution, Article X, section 1", "Montana Schools Try to Keep Indian Students Engaged by Teaching Indian Culture to All", "National Vital Statistics Reports Volumne 64, Number 1, January 15, 2015", "National Vital Statistics Reports, Volume 64, Number 12, December 23, 2015 (The general fertility rate for 2014 on page 4 was corrected to read 62.9 on December 23, 2015. Evelyn Cameron, a naturalist and photographer from Terry documented early 20th century life on the Montana prairie, taking startlingly clear pictures of everything around her: cowboys, sheepherders, weddings, river crossings, freight wagons, people working, badlands, eagles, coyotes and wolves. , Various community civic groups also played a role in selecting the state grass and the state gemstones. Geography. Most of the United States' 50 states have a state motto, as do the District of Columbia, and 3 … She referred to Butte throughout the rest of her career and remains a controversial figure there for her mixture of criticism and love for Butte and its people. He gave some speeches with inflammatory antiwar rhetoric. , According to the 2010 Census, 89.4% of the population was White (87.8% non-Hispanic White), 6.3% American Indian and Alaska Native, 2.9% Hispanics and Latinos of any race, 0.6% Asian, 0.4% Black or African American, 0.1% Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander, 0.6% from some other race, and 2.5% from two or more races. Six of Montana's smaller four-year schools are members of the Frontier Conference. in Latin which means "Ever Upward!" , In more recent presidential elections, Montana has voted for the Republican candidate in all but two elections from 1952 to the present. , The climate has become warmer in Montana[when?] "Big Sky Country"  Nelson Story brought the first Texas Longhorn cattle into the territory in 1866.  From this point, it then flows generally east through fairly flat agricultural land and the Missouri Breaks to Fort Peck reservoir. Montana eventually became home to the largest ICBM field in the U.S. covering 23,500 square miles (61,000 km2). The most common of these languages are German, Spanish, Crow, and French. After three years, a fee of one dollar per acre would be paid and the land would be owned by the settler. Montana Youth Courts were established by the Montana Youth Court Act of 1974. Oro y plata. The District Courts also have de novo appellate jurisdiction from inferior courts (city courts, justice courts, and municipal courts), and oversee naturalization proceedings. Current law allows both hunters and trappers specified numbers ("limits") of wolves and mountain lions. , Montana is governed by a constitution. It borders Canada to the north, North Dakota and South Dakota to the east, Wyoming to the south, and Idaho to the west. Other rich placer deposits were found at Last Chance Gulch, where the city of Helena now stands, Confederate Gulch, Silver Bow, Emigrant Gulch, and Cooke City.  North of these ranges are the Big Belt Mountains, Bridger Mountains, Tobacco Roots, and several island ranges, including the Crazy Mountains and Little Belt Mountains.. , The 1972 constitution has been amended 31 times as of 2015. East and north of this transition zone are the expansive and sparsely populated Northern Plains, with tableland prairies, smaller island mountain ranges, and badlands. The coldest month varies between December and January depending on location, although figures are similar throughout. It is the second largest House district by area, after Alaska's at-large congressional district. … There are approximately 3,300,000 acres (13,000 km2) of wilderness in 12 separate wilderness areas that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System established by the Wilderness Act of 1964. In this school students were charged $1.75 per week. Joseph K. Toole, Governor of the State of Montana: The Montana state office of tourism adopted "EZ 2 LUV" as slogan in 1995.  In 1910, the Great Falls land office alone had more than a thousand homestead filings per month, and at the peak of 1917–1918 it had 14,000 new homesteads each year. The initial motto suggestion was in somewhat poor Spanish "Oro el Plata" - fortunately later, someone with a bit more linguistic talent in Spanish spotted it, and corrected it to "Oro y Plata". Some of these Montana funny state slogans or tasteless Montanan state slogans (depending on your sense of humour) may be bought on souvenir t-shirts and the like. The mountains can receive over 100 inches (2,500 mm), for example the Grinnell Glacier in Glacier National Park gets 105 inches (2,700 mm).  The Pend Oreille River forms the outflow of Lake Pend Oreille. , War sentiment was complicated by labor issues. Painter and sculptor Charles Marion Russell, known as "the cowboy artist", created more than 2,000 paintings of cowboys, Native Americans, and landscapes set in the Western United States and in Alberta, Canada. On August 1, 1917, he was dragged from his boarding house by masked vigilantes, and hanged from a railroad trestle, considered a lynching. U.S. Attorney Burton K. Wheeler and several district court judges who hesitated to prosecute or convict people brought up on charges were strongly criticized.  Montana also claims the disputed title of possessing the world's shortest river, the Roe River, just outside Great Falls. , The area east of the divide in the state' north-central portion is known for the Missouri Breaks and other significant rock formations. Another 40,000-plus Montanans entered the armed forces in the first year following the declaration of war, and more than 57,000 joined up before the war ended. [USA] [Missouri state motto: Let the welfare of the people be the supreme law.]pol. Funny State Slogans or the state motto, state nickname and state slogan of United States? Montana did not see a large influx of immigrants from this act because 160 acres were usually insufficient to support a family in the arid territory. , Montana schoolchildren played a significant role in selecting several state symbols. District Court judges are elected, and serve six-year terms. A state seal with a miner's pick and shovel above the motto, surrounded by the mountains and the Great Falls of the Missouri River, was adopted during the first meeting of the territorial legislature in 1864–65. Hell Roaring Creek begins in southern Montana, and when combined with the Red Rock, Beaverhead, Jefferson, Missouri, and Mississippi River, is the longest river in North America and the fourth longest river in the world. The president signed and issued the proclamation declaring Montana a state of the union at 10:40 o'clock this morning. , Montana has 56 counties and a total of 364 "places" as defined by the United States Census Bureau; the latter comprising 129 incorporated places and 235 census-designated places. This Montana state nickname was 'invented' in the same year as "The Treasure State" (1895). As mentioned above, Montana's state motto was adopted as an element of its official seal. "Kolle já silbâ")' Laavlâ "Montana" Montana lii Ovtâstumstaatâi uásistaatâ. Historically, U.S. Route 10 was the primary east–west highway route across Montana, connecting the major cities in the southern half of the state.  Though the word "honyocker", possibly derived from the ethnic slur "hunyak", was applied in a derisive manner at homesteaders as being "greenhorns", "new at his business", or "unprepared", most of these new settlers had farming experience, though many did not.. , Montana also has millions of acres open to cross-country skiing on nine of its national forests and in Glacier National Park. Indian survivors who had signed treaties were generally required to move onto reservations. The western half of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges, while the eastern half is characterized by western prairie terrain and badlands, with more (albeit smaller) mountain ranges found throughout the state. , As of 2010, Missoula is the 166th largest media market in the United States as ranked by Nielsen Media Research, while Billings is 170th, Great Falls is 190th, the Butte-Bozeman area 191st, and Helena is 206th.  The Rocky Mountain Front is a significant feature in the state's north-central portion, and isolated island ranges that interrupt the prairie landscape common in the central and eastern parts of the state.  Of Montana's 56 counties, Native Americans constitute a majority in three: Big Horn, Glacier, and Roosevelt.  Robert Redford's 1992 film of Norman Mclean's novel, A River Runs Through It, was filmed in Montana and brought national attention to fly fishing and the state. Both downhill skiing and cross-country skiing are popular in Montana, which has 15 developed downhill ski areas open to the public, including: Big Sky Resort and Whitefish Mountain Resort are destination resorts, while the remaining areas do not have overnight lodging at the ski area, though several host restaurants and other amenities. 2007–2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates", "Some Shifts In 2010 Census Numbers Due to Boundary Changes, Not All Growth", "Spokane, Montana's Kentucky Derby Winner", "State Fish Blackspotted Cutthroat Trout", "State Fish, Montana Code Annotated: 1-1-507", "TITLE 1. A part of southeastern Montana was used as a corridor between the Crows and the related Hidatsas in North Dakota. , According to the Pew Forum, the religious affiliations of the people of Montana are: Protestant 47%, Catholic 23%, LDS (Mormon) 5%, Jehovah's Witness 2%, Buddhist 1%, Jewish 0.5%, Muslim 0.5%, Hindu 0.5% and nonreligious at 20%. 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